“Philosophy is my art…
ALAYA is my medium…
The mind is my canvass…
I paint on the people’s mind and consciousness…”
Today I was reading a post, by a American-Filipino, that included interesting hints of ancient oral records about the the Filipino people. I recall certain memories in my youthful past (“members only” restrictions) that intrigued me to research further…
– MAY WE ALL SHARE OURSTORY AND OUR STORIES,
to permanently remove the walls and boundaries that divide us and
perpetuates the secretive and hidden knowledge that hinders freedom, peace, and prosperity. –
Which led me to this blog entry:
Essays on Kapampangan Philosophy and Nationalism
“In the Kapampangan universe, people know me as…
SIUALA DING MEANGUBIE
‘voice of the departed’
I was born Mike Pangilinan (齋部神威)…
My apung babai (阿婆) ‘maternal grandmother’ hails from the LIM CO LIOC (林高柳) and TAYAG (高柳) clan of Magalang…
MY apung lalaki (阿公) ‘maternal grandfather’ hails from the TOLEDANO of Spain and MANALOTO (源) clan of Magalang…
My impu (外婆) ‘paternal grandmother’ comes from the DIZON (李孫) and LINGAT (利屋) clan…
MY ingkung (外公) ‘paternal grandfather’ comes from the PUNU (本主) and PANGILINAN (齋部) clan…
My fondest childhood memory was growing up with my maternal grandparents in the quiet town of Magalang, guarded by the sacred mountain ALAYA, home of the war and sun god Apung Sinukuan…
Philosophy is my art…
ALAYA is my medium…
The mind is my canvass…
I paint on the people’s mind and consciousness…”
Which led me to this:
“…please join the GLOBAL Day of Action on January 11 to demonstrate support for Chief Spence and the rising global Indigenous People’s Movement.
we invite you to share your expressions of solidarity – in your own way, in your own communities – so we can learn together in kapwa.”
The Kapwa Collective is a group of Filipino Canadian artists, critical thinkers, and healers who work across different academic and applied disciplines. We believe in the values of inclusivity and accessibility, and we work towards bridging narratives between the Indigenous and the Diasporic, and the Filipino and the Canadian. We facilitate links among academic, artistic, activist, and other communities in Toronto.
The Kapwa Collective functions as a mutual support group based on the core value of “kapwa”. Virgilio G. Enriquez, known as the founder of Filipino Psychology or Sikolohiyang Pilipino initially proposed a concept of personhood centered on the core value expressed in the word “kapwa”. In the words of the scholar Katrin de Guia:
Kapwa is a Tagalog term widely used when addressing another with the intention of establishing a connection. It reflects a viewpoint that beholds the essential humanity recognizable in everyone, therefore linking (including) people rather than separating (excluding) them from each other. Enriquez felt that this orientation was an expression of ‘humanness at its highest level’.
– Kapwa: The Self in the Other, Worldviews and Lifestyles of Filipino Culture-Bearers, 2005
ALAYA – The Eight Consciousnesses is a classification developed in the tradition of the Yogacara school of Buddhism. They enumerate the five senses, supplemented by the mind, the “obscuration” of the mind (manas), and finally the fundamental store-house consciousness, which is the basis of the other seven.
The Sanskrit term for store-house consciousness is ālayavijñāna (Tibetan: ཀུན་གཞི་རྣམ་ཤེས་, Wylie: kun-gzhi rnam-shes), from ālaya “abode” or dwelling”, and vijñāna “consciousness” (Chinese: 阿賴耶識), (Japanese: arayashiki).
The Eight Consciousnesses (Aṣṭa Vijñāna)
As functional phœnomena arising from causes and conditions on the one hand, while giving rise in turn to ripened results on the other, each of the eight consciousnesses (Sanskrit: astavijnana) may be understood as a conditionally aggregate (Sanskrit: skandha) phœnomenon. The first six of these comprise the five sensory consciousnesses, plus mental consciousness.
The Yogacara School (which is sometimes interpreted as espousing the tenets of Cittamatra philosophy) posits the existence of two additional consciousnesses, which may help to explain the workings of karma. In brief, then, these eight consciousnesses are as follows.
- Eye-consciousnes (Tibetan: མིག་གི་རྣམ་ཤེས་, Wylie: mig-gi rnam-shes) seeing apprehended by the visual sense organs;
- Ear-consciousness (Tibetan: རྣའི་རྣམ་ཤེས་, Wylie: rna’i rnam-shes), hearing apprehended by the auditory sense organs;
- Nose-consciousness (Tibetan: སྣའི་རྣམ་ཤེས་, Wylie: sna’i rnam-shes), smelling apprehended through the olfactory organs;
- Tongue-consciousness (Tibetan: ལྕེའི་རྣམ་ཤེས་, Wylie: lce’i rnam-shes), tasting perceived through the gustatory organs;
- Body-consciousness (Tibetan: ལུས་ཀྱི་རྣམ་ཤེས་, Wylie: lus-kyi rnam-shes), tactile and kinesthetic feeling apprehended through skin contact, i.e., touch.
- Ideation-consciousnes, the aspect of mind known in Sanskrit as citta or manovijñāna, the “mind monkey“; the consciousness of ideation. (Tibetan: ཡིད་ཀྱི་རྣམ་ཤེས་, Wylie: yid-kyi rnam-shes), 意識.
- Obscuration-consciousness, Manas consciousness (Sanskrit: klistamanas = klesha), (Tibetan: ཉོན་ཡིད་རྣམ་ཤེས་, Wylie: nyon-yid rnam-shes), (“obscuration”, “poison”, “enemy”; manas: “ideation”, “moving mind”, “mind monkey“): through apprehension, the consciousness which gathers the hindrances, poisons, and karmic formations;
- Store-house consciousness (Sanskrit: ālāyavijñāna) or seed consciousness (Sanskrit: bījavijñāna), (Tibetan: ཀུན་གཞི་རྣམ་ཤེས་, Wylie: kun-gzhi rnam-shes), (Chinese: 藏識 or 種子識), which is the basis of the other seven, 本識. It is the aggregate which yields rebirth.[a]
See the Wikipedia entry: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eight_Consciousnesses
Alaya and Impure Appearance-Making
December 30, 2001
revised September 29, 2002
All four traditions of Tibetan Buddhism accept that the Chittamatra (sems-tsam, mind-only) system of Indian Buddhist tenets asserts alayavijnana (kun-gzhi rnam-shes, all-encompassing foundation consciousness, storehouse consciousness) as a truly existent (bden-grub) unclear consciousness that underlies all moments of cognition before enlightenment. It serves as the basis for imputation of the habits of unawareness and of karma, continues from lifetime to lifetime, but ceases with the attainment of Buddhahood.
The non-Gelug traditions – Sakya, Kagyu, Nyingma – accept that the Madhyamaka tenet systems that make positive assertions about reality (all Madhyamaka systems other than Prasangika) also assert alayavijnana. These Madhyamaka systems, however, assert only a conventionally existent (tha-snyad-du yod-pa) alayavijnana, not an ultimately existent one (don-dam-du yod-pa). The conventionally existent alayavijnana, however, lacks true existence.
The Gelug tradition asserts that no Madhyamaka system accepts even the conventional existence of an alayavijnana.
The mainstream Sakya tradition asserts, in a similar manner to Gelug, that when clear-light mental activity is manifest, it gives rise to only pure appearances (dag-pa’i snang-ba). The habits (bag-chags) of unawareness (ma-rig-pa, ignorance) imputed on the clear-light mind do not give rise to impure appearances (ma-dag-pa’i snang-ba) at that time. They only give rise to impure appearances when clear-light mental activity is not manifest. In this context, impure appearances refer to appearances that are not beyond words and concepts, while pure appearances refer to appearances that are beyond words and concepts.
Sakya calls clear-light mental activity the “causal alaya continuum” (kun-gzhi rgyu’i rgyud, the causal everlasting continuum of the all-encompassing foundation) and the “ultimate alaya” (mthar-thug-gi kun-gzhi, ultimate all-encompassing foundation). It is the ultimate foundation or source of both impure and pure appearances as defined above. Gelug does not apply the term alaya to clear-light mental activity.
Sakya does not explain alayavijnana, then, as a source of impure appearances distinct from the causal alaya continuum. With the attainment of enlightenment, the alayavijnana transforms (gnas-‘gyur) into the causal alaya continuum, but not in the manner in which a seed transforms into a sprout. Both the alayavijnana and the causal alaya continuum have been ever present before enlightenment. With the attainment of enlightenment, only the causal alaya continuum goes on. The continuity of the alayavijnana ceases.
The provisional alaya (gnas-skabs-kyi kun-gzhi, provisional all-encompassing foundation), uniquely asserted by Sakya, refers to the four mandala-seats (gdan dkyil-‘khor bzhi):
- subtle syllables within them,
- creative energy-drops,
Based on these, the appearance-making aspects (gsal-cha, clarity) of ultimate alayas produce two inseparable quantum levels of appearances of our bodies, speech, minds, and the inseparable simultaneity of the three. The two quantum levels are their gross appearances in our usual human forms and their subtle appearances as Buddha-figures. In this context, impure appearances refer to the former and pure appearances to the latter.
The provisional alaya ceases with the attainment of enlightenment and the four mandala-seats transform into the four Buddha-bodies.
The Karma Kagyu tradition differentiates the deep-awareness alaya (kun-gzhi ye-shes, deep-awareness that is an all-encompassing foundation) from the specific-awareness alaya (kun-gzhi rnam-shes, specific awareness that is an all-encompassing foundation). Specific-awareness alaya is synonymous with alayavijnana. As in the relationship between the environment in which sentient beings are based (or live) (rten) and sentient beings themselves who are based (who live) in it (brten), specific-awareness alaya is the environment in which deep-awareness alaya is based and deep-awareness alaya is what is based on it.
Although the two alayas are mixed like milk and water, the habits of unawareness are imputed only on the latter. When clear-light mental activity is manifest, these habits do not give rise to impure appearances, not beyond words and concepts. They give rise to them only when that activity is not manifest.
The Nyingma tradition differentiates basis pure awareness (gzhi’i rig-pa, basis rigpa), as the primordial deepest alaya (ye-don kun-gzhi, primordial deepest all-encompassing foundation) from the alaya for constant habits (bag-chags-kyi kun-gzhi, all-encompassing foundation for habits). The latter is synonymous with alayavijnana.
Before enlightenment, the everlasting continuum of basis rigpa has with it a factor of dumbfoundedness (rmongs-cha). This factor is equivalent to the unawareness of not knowing how rigpa exists – a type of unawareness included within unawareness regarding all phenomena and preventing omniscience. Because of this factor of dumbfoundedness, basis rigpa functions as an alaya for constant habits and, through a complex mechanism, produces impure appearances, not beyond words and concepts, during conceptual and nonconceptual cognition with limited awareness (sems).
When we access essence pure awareness (ngo-bo’i rig-pa, essence rigpa), which is the primal purity (ka-dag) aspect of rigpa – primally pure of all fleeting stains such as habits – basis rigpa does not function as an alaya for constant habits. It gives rise only to pure appearances, beyond words and concepts.
Pages with Similar Content:
- Ridding Oneself of the Two Sets of Obscurations in Sutra and Highest Tantra According to Nyingma and Sakya
- Impure and Pure Appearances According to Non-Gelug
- The Major Facets of Dzogchen
- The Gelug-Kagyu Tradition of Mahamudra – Session Three
- Commentary on An Aspiration Prayer for the Definitive Meaning of Mahamudra – 2 Eliminating Confusion about the Practice of the Path
- Fundamentals of Dzogchen Meditation – 1 Recognizing Different Levels of Mental Activity and Appearance-Making